Engineering Blog

Mixing up concurrency and parallelism

Even after years of concurrent programming, developers may not clearly understand the differences Developers who have been working with concurrent programming for a long time may still not fully grasp the distinctions between concurrency and parallelism. Therefore, before discussing specific topics related to Go programming, it is important to first understand these concepts and establish a shared vocabulary.

Real life Setting

To help illustrate the difference, consider the example of a coffee shop. In this coffee shop, one waiter is in charge of accepting orders and preparing them using a single coffee machine. Customers give their orders and then wait for their coffee.


If the waiter is having a hard time serving all the customers and the coffee shop wants to speed up the overall process, one idea might be to have a second waiter and a second coffee machine. A customer in the queue would wait for a waiter to be available.

In this new process, every part of the system is independent. The coffee shop should serve consumers twice as fast. This is a parallel implementation of a coffee shop. If we want to scale, we can keep duplicating waiters and coffee machines over and over.


However, this isn’t the only possible coffee shop design. Another approach might be to split the work done by the waiters and have one in charge of accepting orders and another one who grinds the coffee beans, which are then brewed in a single machine. Also, instead of blocking the customer queue until a customer is served, we could introduce another queue for customers waiting for their orders.

With this new design, we don’t make things parallel. But the overall structure is affected: we split a given role into two roles, and we introduce another queue. Unlike parallelism, which is about doing the same thing multiple times at once, concurrency is about structure.

Parallelism and Concurrency

Assuming one thread represents the waiter accepting orders and another represents the coffee machine, we have introduced yet another thread to grind the coffee beans. Each thread is independent but has to coordinate with others. Here, the waiter thread accepting orders has to communicate which coffee beans to grind. Meanwhile, the coffee-grinding threads must communicate with the coffee machine thread.
What if we want to increase throughput by serving more customers per hour? Because grinding beans takes longer than accepting orders, a possible change could be to hire another coffee-grinding waiter.

Here, the structure remains the same. It is still a three-step design: accept, grind, brew coffee. Hence, there are no changes in terms of concurrency. But we are back to adding parallelism, here for one particular step: the order preparation. Now, let’s assume that the part slowing down the whole process is the coffee machine. Using a single coffee machine introduces contentions for the coffee-grinding threads as they both wait for a coffee machine thread to be available. What could be a solution? Adding more coffee machine threads.

Instead of a single coffee machine, we have increased the level of parallelism by introducing more machines. Again, the structure hasn’t changed; it remains a three-step design. But throughput should increase because the level of contention for the coffee grinding threads should decrease. With this design, we can notice something important: concurrency enables parallelism. Indeed, concurrency provides a structure to solve a problem with parts that may be parallelized.


In summary, concurrency and parallelism are different. Concurrency is about structure, and we can change a sequential implementation into a concurrent one by introducing different steps that separate concurrent threads can tackle. Meanwhile, parallelism is about execution, and we can use it at the step level by adding more parallel threads. Understanding these two concepts is fundamental to being a proficient Go developer.


  • 100 Go Mistakes and how to avoid them, Teiva Harsanyi, Manning Publications Co
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